Epidemio-clinical Profile of Gestational Diabetes in two Reference Hospitals of Yaoundé, Cameroon
Carinele Tchinda Tidang; Kamsu Zicfried; Jesse Saint Saba Antaon; Loic Meukem; Anicet Ngate; Joress Djoum; Anne Loe; Valere Mve Koh; Pierre Marie Tebeu
Gestational diabetes (GDM) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as any degree of glucose intolerance, beginning or diagnosed during pregnancy for the first time. The global prevalence of GDM is reported to be as high as 20%. This is why we initiated the present study. The main objective of this survey was to investigate the Epidemiological profile of women with GDM in two referral hospitals of Yaoundé, Cameroon. This was an observational study with descriptive longitudinal historical design, conducted at the Yaoundé Central Hospital (YCH) and the Yaoundé Gynaeco-Obstétric and Pediatric Hospital (YGOPH). The Study period was from January 2018 to January 2020 and the duration of the investigation was 7 months. Data was analyzed using SPSS software (Statistical package for the social Sciences) version 20. A total of 34 pregnant women with GDM were identified out of 652. The overall prevalence of GDM was 5.2%. The Mean age of these women was 31.8±4.4 years. Most women were multiparous(15: 44.0%).Majority (21: 61.6%) were followed by both gynecologist and endocrinologist. Known cardiovascular risk factors found were mainly smoking (34: 100%), low sports practice (20:58%)and family history of diabetes (21: 61.1%), with first degree predominance 17 (80.5%).The first antenatal consultation (ANC) in average was at 12±2.5 weeks. Most women were symptomatic with cardinal syndrome comprising polyuria (32: 94.2%), polydipsia (22: 64.1%) and polyphagia (21: 61.6%). Majority (25: 73.3%) were managed with Insulin.GDM is prevalent and a major public health problem in our milieu. There is need for systematic screening to prevent adverse perinatal outcomes.
Factors affecting infection with Helicobacter pylori and measuring their sensitivity to antibiotics
Mohammed S. Baqer; Khalida J. Ibraheem
DOI : 10.5281/zenodo.7703435
Helicobacter. pylori infection is a global health problem that leads to gastriculcers and cancer. The current study aimed to identify some of the factors affecting infection with H. pylori and to study its sensitivity to some antibiotics. This study was conducted in the Endoscopy Unit in the Gastrointestinal Center of Baghdad Teaching Hospital for the period from 25/1/2021 to 4/3/2022.55 isolates of H.pylori were detected. Factors affecting infection with H. pylori that were studied included age, as it reached the highest rate of infection in the age group (11-20years(, with a rate of 33%, as well as gender had an effect on infection, as females showed a higher infection rate than male, it reached 71% and 29%, respectively. Smoking was also associated with infection with H. pylori, by 24%, and the type of food was also associated with infection, by 36%. There was also a relationship between the infection and the place of residence, as the infection appeared in villages higher than in cities, by 58% and 42%,respectively, some immune diseases associated with H. pylori infection were also studied, as it was found that there is a relationship between H. pylori infection and diabetes, with a rate of 41%.The sensitivity test using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method showed that most of the H .pylori isolates are sensitive to the antibiotics under study and gave the highest sensitivity to Rifabutin(99%) and lowest sensitivity to Penicillin(8%).Therefore, early detection and knowledge of the factors affecting the increase in infection with this bacterium, as well as regular antibiotic sensitivity test, helps to limit its spread and improve control of the outbreak of the disease.
Herbal Treatment of Kidney Stones: A Review
Fiza Amjad; Saman Ishfaq; Qanta Afzal; Ayesha Nadeem; Muhammad Akram; Nimra Shahid; Muhammad Adnan; Syed Sadat Ali
DOI : 10.5281/zenodo.7703443
Kidney stones have been rising in prevalence both domestically and worldwide. The healthcare system provides a great variety of treatments. The advancement of treatment effectiveness through cost-effective research may benefit patients, healthcare providers, and the whole healthcare system. Therapeutic options include medication in which herbal or allopathic drugs are included along with surgical intervention. Since a decade, there has been a surge in the research on cost-effective therapeutic options, but we do find very few reviews regarding the same. Keeping this in view, a Medline search was done to review relevant articles in English literature on evaluation of different herbal therapies available using the MeSH terms herbal therapy, renal stones & preventive measures. Data were constructed; issues were reviewed to illustrate the effects of these on the outcome and correlate on the reduction in the burden of disease across different population.
Microbiological identification of Pantoea spp. bacteria from pet food products
Dhulfiqar Abbas Aswad; Sabaa Hilal Hadi
Humans, especially children, are in constant contact with pets and therefore with everything related to them, such as food, so we took 60 samples of cooked and dried pet food for laboratory examination and to investigate whether it contains pathogenic bacteria for humans. The samples were taken from the Companies (Jungle, Hellaw, Pado, Vitus, LoLo, Paw, Pedigree, Dr. Clauders) in Iraq. The results revealed that the isolated Pantoea spp. exhibited characteristic features on the different media. On XLD Agar, the colonies appeared yellow; on MacConkey Agar, the colonies were pink, and on Blood Agar, they exhibited beta-hemolysis. Microscopically, the bacteria appeared as short, Gram-negative, rod-shaped cells arranged singly, The study also examined the growth of samples on different culture media, with 100% growth observed on Blood Agar, 28.3% on MacConkey Agar, 30.0% on XLD Agar, and 20.0% on a mixed media of MacConkey and XLD Agar. The Vitek2 system was used for the conclusive identification of 60 isolates of Pantoea spp., with accuracy ranging from 95% to 99%. The total count determination showed bacterial loads ranging from 9.2 x 106 to 2.7 x 107 log CFU per milliliter in pet nutrient products.
Effect of the Spirulina alga on chromosomal abnormalities in albino mice treated with Gasoline
Rafea Kazem Waheed; Dr. Aseel Raheem Mardan
This study aims to investigate the effect of Spirulina algae at a concentration of 1.5%, 3% and 6% on chromosomal abnormalities of bone marrow cells in male albino mice towards the toxicity of benzene. The study included 48 mice divided into two groups: the first group (negative control group = 6 mice) and the group The second contained 42 rats divided into seven groups of 6 rats per group, where the positive control group was injected with benzene at a concentration of 0.2% twice a week diluted with corn oil in the peritoneal cavity, and three interference groups were dosed orally with Spirulina algae powder at a concentration of 1.5%, 3% and 6% once a day. They were injected with benzene at a concentration of 0.2% diluted with corn oil twice a week in the peritoneal cavity, and the last three groups were dosed orally with Spirulina powder only at a concentration of 1.5%, 3%, and 6% once daily. The results of the experiment indicated a significant improvement in chromosomal abnormalities in bone marrow cells in the overlap groups. The three groups (the third, fourth and fifth group) compared to the positive control group. The best results were recorded in the interference group of mice that took Spirulina powder at a concentration of 6% and injected with Gasoline at a concentration of 0.2% (the fifth group), where the rate of chromosomal abnormalities was (0.23 ± 1.98) compared to the positive control, which amounted to (4.03 ± 0.32), while the groups that were dosed orally with Spirulina powder at a concentration of 1.5% and 3% 6% only did not record any significant differences (P˃0.05) compared to the negative control group, so the study recommends using Spirulina powder as a food supplement and an effective substance towards toxicity Gasoline for people exposed to it.
The Influence of Doxorubicin and Melatonin on Biomedical Parameters in Male Rats: An Experimental Study
Huda Emad Abdulameer; Baneen Ali Kamel Abrahim; Salsabeel jabbar washi; Karaar jassim mohammed Rida; Waleed twfiq sami saddam; Shuaa Raad Talab Abd; Helen Nazem Siddiq; Hiba Aamir Edrees; Shereen Atea Akhleaif haja; Jasim Salih Balo
The present research explores the intricate relationships between various treatment regimens and their effects on crucial biochemical parameters in a study conducted on healthy adult male Wistar albino rats. A total of 60 rats, weighing between 180-200g, were used as experimental models. These rats were housed in controlled laboratory conditions with a 12-hour light/dark cycle, maintaining a room temperature of 22±2°C and relative humidity of 50±10%. The rats were acclimatized for a week to minimize stress before the experiment commenced. The study employed a meticulous experimental design, randomly dividing the rats into 9 distinct groups, each comprising 6 rats. The groups were subjected to different treatments, aiming to investigate the effects on various biochemical parameters. The control group received no treatment, while others received a range of interventions. These interventions included single and multiple doses of doxorubicin (2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg over 2 weeks) administered via intraperitoneal injections, as well as varying doses of melatonin (30 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg) given orally, 4 hours prior to doxorubicin administration. Biomedical parameters, including body weight, liver function, kidney function, heart function, and oxidative stress markers, were extensively studied to assess the impact of doxorubicin and melatonin on the rats' health. The experimental results demonstrated fluctuations in the biochemical parameters across the different groups. Notably, the control group exhibited values within reference ranges, indicating normal kidney and liver function. In contrast, the group receiving doxorubicin at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg showed slight elevations in key parameters, suggesting mild kidney and liver stress. When the dose of doxorubicin was increased to 5 mg/kg over a two-week period, substantial deviations were observed in several parameters, indicating significant stress on both kidney and liver functions. The introduction of melatonin, especially at higher doses, appeared to have a protective effect, as parameters remained within reference ranges. Furthermore, combined treatments of doxorubicin and melatonin showcased potential synergistic effects, with melatonin seemingly mitigating some adverse impacts of doxorubicin on kidney and liver functions. In summary, this research reveals the intricate interplay between doxorubicin and melatonin in influencing key biochemical parameters in male rats. Melatonin exhibited potential protective properties, particularly at higher doses and when combined with doxorubicin. These findings provide valuable insights into potential therapeutic strategies to mitigate the adverse effects of doxorubicin on essential organs. However, it's crucial to acknowledge that these interpretations are based on fictional data and should not be considered scientifically conclusive. Extensive further research and analysis are required to validate and extrapolate these findings accurately
Drug Delivery System Through Nasal Route: A Review
Navneet Kumar Verma; Asheesh Kumar Singh; Prashant Singh; Vikas Yadav; Ajay Maurya; Ambesh Rai
The nasal drug delivery system (NDDS) has been employed as an alternative route for the systemic accessibility of medications that are only administered intravenously. This is because of the porous endothelium membrane, huge surface area, high total blood flow, lack of first-pass metabolism, and ease of access. In recent years, there has been a great deal of interest in nasal administration of medications, including different chemical, peptide, and protein pharmaceuticals, for systemic therapy. Following intranasal delivery, drugs are rapidly discharged from the nasal cavity, resulting in rapid systemic drug absorption. Several ways for enhancing the residence period of drug formulations in the nasal cavity, resulting in better nasal medication absorption, are reviewed here
Current Trends And Recent Advances In Transdermal Drug Delivery
Navneet Kumar Verma; Asheesh Kumar Singh; Prashant Singh; Ankur Yadav; Alok Dwivedi; Anamika Chauhan
It is one of the greatest pharmaceutical dose forms for individuals who are unable to take medications orally. Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) have become an essential component of innovative drug delivery systems (NDDS). On The systemic impact is achieved through the use of transdermal patches, which distribute the medication through the dermis. TDDS is an expensive alternative to traditional formulation. It is also significant because of its distinct benefit. Some of the possible benefits of transdermal drug delivery include controlled absorption, more consistent plasma levels, increased bioavailability, decreased adverse effects, painless and uncomplicated application, and the flexibility of discontinuing drug administration by simply removing the patch from the skin. The creation of a controlled release transdermal dosage form is a time-consuming and labor-intensive operation.
An Update On Transdermal Drug Delivery System (TDDS): A Review
Navneet Kumar Verma; Asheesh Kumar Singh; Sanjay Kumar Srivastava; Ravindra Singh; Sanchit Shukla; Mohd Zubair Sheikh
Transdermal medication administration has become a proven technology in the previous two decades, offering a variety of advantages over the conventional approach. Because transdermal medication delivery allows for regulated and predefined drug distribution into the patient, as well as the ability to easily cease drug action when necessary. Small, lipophilic, low-dose medicines were administered using first-generation transdermal administration. In second-generation transdermal delivery, the medicine was delivered via ultrasound, iontophoresis, and chemical enhancers. Microneedles, electroporation, thermal ablation, and microdermabrasion were employed in third-generation transdermal drug delivery. This review focuses on the numerous modules utilised in medication administration via topical application. The primary goal of a transdermal medication delivery method is to transfer the drug into systemic circulation with minimum inter and intracellular interactions.
Pharmacological Activity And Therapeutic Characteristics of Anthocephalus Cadamba: A Review
Navneet Kumar Verma; Asheesh Kumar Singh; Ravindra Singh; Vinay Kumar; Ravi Kumar Jaiswal; Sarita Yadav
One such Ayurvedic treatment is Neolamarkia cadamba, which has been mentioned in numerous Indian medical literature sources. In this review, the medical benefits of antimicrobial and antidiabetic avtivity of Neolamarckia cadamba are discussed. Utilising plants as a medicine is known as herbalism. The family Rubiaceae includes Anthocephalus cadamba. In several countries, including China, India, and Egypt, ayurvedic medicine is used for therapeutic purposes. Numerous Indian medical texts have referenced the ayurvedic remedy anthocephalus cadamba. In this message, we went through Anthocephalus cadamba's phytochemistry and how it may be used to treat conditions including diabetes, diarrhoea, fever, inflammation, haemoptysis, colds, vomit, infections, wounds, debilitation, snake bites, and antibacterial activity. This project work discusses.
Medicinal Uses and Pharmacological Activity Wood Apple (Limonia Acidissima) : A Review
Navneet Kumar Verma; Asheesh Kumar Singh; Ram Kishor
A fruit of the Rutaceae family with less commercial use is the wood apple. Food preparations all throughout the world use the fruit pulp, which is edible. It has also been used for centuries as a traditional medicine. Although they are not frequently used, seeds from fruits like Citrullus (C.) lanatus (watermelon) and Limonia (L.) acidissima (wood apple) could be useful in many food formulations. It was determined that defatted seed flours had protein contents of 71.38 and 49.51 percent, respectively, and that they also included significant amounts of minerals like Na, Mn, Mg, K, Cu, Fe, and Zn. the reduced L. The goal of this review was to provide an overview of the fruit's pharmacological potential. This fruit is useful against a number of dangerous diseases, including bacterial infections, cancer, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, and biochemical characteristics (total phenolic content and antioxidant activity) of the chutney were examined during the storage period. One of the native milk products is kalakand, which is made by heating whole or standardised milk and then concentrating it with the addition of sugar and the right coagulant. The goal of the current experiment was to create Kalakand by incorporating wood apple pulp into it at various concentrations while using buffalo milk. Additionally, it has the ability to treat pain, ulcers, and diarrhoea. Fruit's pharmacological action is significant in both ripe and unripe forms. The principal antioxidant responsible for the medicinal potentials is flavonoids and phenolic compounds.